2011-12 Fellows and Faculty
The program was initiated in 1962 by Robert E. Smith, a pediatric allergist, trained at Scripps Clinic in California. The first fellow came onboard in 1964 and the first staff assigned was James I. Tannenbaum, a pediatric allergist trained from Ohio State. The clinic was located on the first floor of Wilford Hall Medical Center until 1970 when it was moved to one of the wards from the old, WWII Lackland Hospital. The clinic was moved back into the newly constructed out-patient addition to the main hospital in 1980.
The allergy section functioned exclusively as a clinical program from 1964 to 1974. The only equipment in the clinic was a spirometer and a slide-staining tray (for doing nasal and sputum smears). In 1964-65, the first fellow was Andrew M. Hegre, an internist, coming into the program. Smith and Tannenbaum were the only staff. In 1965-66 additions were made to the staff including Stephen R. Shapiro, an internist trained in allergy at Walter Reed, and J. Terence Sams, an internist, trained in allergy for one year at Ohio State and then drafted into the military. Max I. Michels, a pediatrician, joined Andrew Hegre as fellows. In 1966-67, James Tannenbaum returned to Ohio State as a staff physician and Andrew Hegre took an assignment. Andrew Hegre, after his military commitment , began his practice in New Orleans. The staff slot vacated by Tannenbaum was unfilled. Another fellow, Ramon Casanova-Roig, a pediatrician, joined second-year fellow, Max Michels. In 1967-68, Robert Smith moved into an administrative position and Terence Sams exited the military and started a practice in Arlington, Texas. Max Michels was elevated to Chief of the allergy program despite just finishing his fellowship. This created some discord between him and Stephen Shapiro. Michels was superior in military rank but inferior to Shapiro in experience. No new staff and no new fellows were added to the program. In 1968-69, Michels and Shapiro were the only staff and no fellows were in the program. Ramon Casanova-Roig took an assignment and later began a practice in Puerto Rico. In 1969-70, no new staff were added. A fellow was accepted, Aubrey M. Worrell, a pediatrician. The clinic was moved from the main hospital to an old ward of the Lackland hospital (World War II style building).
In 1970-71, the staff remained unchanged, however, another fellow, H. Norman Richardson joined Aubrey Worrell as a second fellow. In 1971-72, a new staff, John R. Bozalis, an internist trained in allergy at University of Michigan, was added. A new fellow, Robert L. Jacobs, joined Richardson as the 1st year fellow. Worrell took an assignment and later started practice in Arkansas. Bozalis was instrumental in the drive to improve the program by pointing out that there was no research being done and there was no laboratory capabilities available. He also brought in a somewhat different perspective and personality. He was more involved in teaching, not only of the fellows but the internal medicine residents. He also led a push on the Department of Medicine to allow hospital admitting privileges for the allergy staff and fellows. 1972-73 brought a new staff, Stacy Greenert, an internist trained in allergy at Cincinnati, and a 1st year fellow, Donald Q. Mitchell, an internist (who would later become a President of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology). Richardson departed and after retirement from the USAF started practice in California. Greenert had a photographic memory and could quote the page number of a text where one could find a piece of information. He was the source of many unusual stories that are talked about today by those individuals who knew him. He started practice in Cincinnati upon separating from the USAF. In 1973-74, Stephen Shapiro took an assignment to Germany. Bozalis separated and began practice in Oklahoma. Jacobs was retained on the staff and was joined by Joseph F. Kelly, an internist trained in allergy at Northwestern in Chicago. Edwin O. McCluskey became a 1st year fellow with his second year to be served in Rheumatology in Denver. Don Q. Mitchell moved into his second year of fellowship. 1974-75 saw the retirement of Max Michels and the separation of Stacy Greenert. Jacobs was elevated to Chairman and Director of the Training program. However, because allergy boards were given every other year, Jacobs had not taken boards and the program was discontinued. R. Neal Boswell, an internist, was assigned to the staff, however, he had no formal allergy training (There was a shortage of trained allergist in the military). Don Q. Mitchell was retained on the staff and Edwin McClusky took an assignment since his Denver fellowship in Rheumatology had fallen apart. Bobby Q. Lanier (who would later become a President of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology) transferred from the program at Galveston and spent the last 6 months (Jan – Jul 1974) of his fellowship at Wilford Hall. Notable in 1974, Jacobs and Mitchell began research projects associated with the army allergists at Ft. Sam Houston leading to two classic papers published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology related to immunotherapy to imported fire ants and mountain cedar pollen. In 1975-76 Jacobs added Lanier and Peter M. Freedmen to the staff. Boswell was sent to Harvard to study bench type immunology in order to return to boost the scientific side of the program. Mitchell separated from the USAF and started practice in Jackson, Mississippi. Freedman, an internist, had trained at Scripps Clinic and was academically inclined. No fellows were taken. Jacobs passed boards in October 1975 and immediately began to re-activate the training program. Since Lanier had spent ¾ of his training in an academic program, he was assigned to draft the outline of the program that we would begin at Wilford Hall in 1976. Freedman was assigned to confiscate any usable equipment from the massive warehouse storage areas at Kelly AFB and begin to build a functioning laboratory. Plans were being drafted to design and build onto Wilford Hall. Jacobs began to plan for an appropriate clinical facility with a significant laboratory space for the Allergy Department. Despite these ongoing efforts, we had to manage the clinic patients with a reduced staff (Jacobs, Lanier, and Freedman) and no fellows. In 1976-77, the Accreditation Committee accepted our Training Program plan in time to accept two fellows, Normand F. Trembley, a pediatrician, and Ralph S. Lowe, an internist. W. Cleve Posey, a pediatrician, trained in allergy at Fitzsimmons in Denver joined the staff. The training program plan generated primarily by Lanier was adopted as the model for other training programs, however, no credit was ever given to Bobby Q. Lanier. Lanier went into practice in Fort Worth in July 1976. Peter Freedman extended for a year until July 1978. This was the year, 1976, in which the NARES and tetanus toxoid studies were initiated. The first patient that had severe anaphylaxis while on beta-blockers was seen in the hospital referred from Sheppard AFB in North Texas. 1977-78: Boswell returns from Harvard; Freedman continues to run the laboratory; Jacobs and Posey continue on staff; Trembley and Lowe continue as 2nd year fellows; Robert E. Harvey and Donald Fournier came on board as 1st year fellows; 1978-79: Freedman separates and starts practice in Minnesota; Posey separates and starts practice in Mobile, Alabama; Trembley remains on staff; Three new follows come on board, Gordon B. Strom, William G. Culver, and Robert F. Sacha. Harvey breaks hand trying to kill a goat with a karate chop and shoots the motor of his truck while hunting coyotes were the subject of much amusement for everyone. 1979-80: Trembley separates and joins Lanier in practice in Fort Worth; Harvey and Fournier remain on staff for one year before going into field; Guillermo Villacorte joins staff; Two new fellows: Jimmy Chevalier and Bruce L. Nelson join Strom, Culver, and Sacha; Angelo J. Freda transfers from Florida as a second year fellow; plans for new facilities in WHMC finalized; Jacobs and Boswell presented the NARES paper in New Orleans at AAAAI meeting.
1980-81: THIS WAS A BIG YEAR!! Fournier, Sacha, Freda, and Harvey go into the field; Culver and Strom remain on staff; three new fellows come aboard: James Claflin, Geoffery W. Rake, and Dexter DeWitt; moved into new facility in the new WHMC addition; had to give up about 2/5th of our new space to the Dermatology section because they had made no plans for the new facility; acquired a new position for a Laboratory Technician to manage the laboratory; acquired a Personal Secretary (Annie Holmes); presented and published the “Potentiated Anaphylaxis” paper and NARES paper in JACI; 1981-82: Nelson and Chevalier go to the field; three new fellows come aboard: Jeffery S. Hallett, Gregory K. Lux, and Edwin J. Whitney; staff remains the same; published tetanus paper in JAMA which was translated into German, Japanese, and Russian for JAMA publications in those countries; several other publications were accomplished in 1982; 1982-83: Claflin and Rake go to the field; Whitney withdraws from the program and enters a cardiology fellowship; two new fellows arrive: Gary L. Smith and Arthur N. Fokakis; staff addition of Bruce Martin from Fitzsimmons AMC; Boswell transferred to an Immunology laboratory set up by Jacobs and Lorden (Chairman of Medicine) to manage the influx of patients with what would be known as AIDS later; acquired a position for a fellow to do a third year of Laboratory Immunology at a civilian facility; 1983-1984: Hallett and Lux go to the field; Lux was not accepted for the third year of immunology training on the basis that he had the military pay for college (Air Force Academy), medical school, pediatric residency, and fellowship (13 years) and he had never served in the field; three new fellows came aboard: Raiqua Arastu, Luis Matos, and Edward E. Philpot; Strom separates and goes into practice in Paris, Texas; Culver takes an assignment to Weisbaden, Germany with the plan to return and take over as Chairman when Jacobs retires in 1986; Michael Ruff joins the staff from Duke; six year rule was to be enforced leading to disruption of plans; Jacobs forced to retire in June 1984; search for a new Chairman began and ended with Bruce Martin elevated to that position in July, 1984. 1984-85: Jacobs retires and starts practice in San Antonio; Villacorte separates because of 6-year rule; Michael Martin assigned to the staff from National Jewish; Smith assigned to the field; Fokakis stays on staff for 1 year; three new fellows come on board: Leigh A. Schwietz, Alan B. Halsey, and Theodore M. Freeman. 1985-86: Arastu, Matos, Philpot, and Fokakis assigned to the field; Michael Reed joins staff (Stanford trainee); two new fellows enter: Fling and Murnane; Reed brings fresh ideas to the program and begins to publish. 1986-87: Bruce Martin separates because of 6-year rule and starts practice in San Antonio; Michael Martin becomes chairman; Schweitz joins the staff; Freeman takes a 3rd year position at Mass General/Harvard; three new fellows enter: Goetz, Hylander, and Parker; Jacobs from private practice publishes two papers with Schweitz and Halsey as co-authors. 1987-88: Michael Ruff separates and goes into practice in Dallas; Freeman returns from Harvard to the staff; two new fellows come on board: Apaliski and Gourley.
The first 10 years was clearly only a clinical program. There was little known science, as compared to the present time, and there was a lack of proper laboratory facilities. There was little interest in any research activity. There were no significant publications. In the second 10 years, dramatic changes occurred. Two staff, who did not overlap, contributed to a change in attitude concerning the allergy/immunology approach: John R. Bozalis (Michigan trained) and Joe F. Kelly (Northwestern trained) were both amazed at the number of patients and pathology seen at Wilford Hall and recognized the potential for meaningful research. To begin the transition to a different approach, Bobby Q. Lanier drafted the format for modern combined allergy/immunology programs as we activated the Wilford Hall program. This format was adopted by the Certifying Board for Allergy/Immunology training programs and remains the standard for which all allergy-immunology training programs must meet to remain certified. Peter M. Freedman developed a laboratory, using equipment from the warehouses at Kelly AFB, to lay the foundation for a more sophisticated laboratory in the planned new facilities. Robert L. Jacobs developed the plans for the new facilities. R. Neal Boswell was granted a fellowship at Harvard to develop and manage the more sophisticated laboratory. The initial research efforts took place with Army allergists at Brooke Army Medical Center (due to difficulty with IRB approval at Wilford Hall) leading to two hallmark papers concerning immunotherapy to mountain cedar allergy and imported fire ant allergy. Research protocols were begun on tetanus toxoid sensitivity and NARES syndrome. Two patients with anaphylaxis potentiated by propranolol were recognized. These three papers were highly recognized world-wide which cast the program at Wilford Hall as one of the top programs in the country. The Air Force Allergy/Immunology program was in direct competition with the Fitzsimmons Army Allergy/Immunology program directed by Harold Nelson for the top programs). Upon moving into the new facility in 1980, the program continued to flourish. A paper concerning primary nasal polyps coupled with the NARES paper and a publication from Mason Clinic in Seattle were credited with cleaving nasal disease into allergic and non-allergic forms. In 1982, because of a high level of referrals for an acquired immune deficiency in homosexuals, Jacobs and Robert Lordon (Chairman of Department of Medicine and an Infectious Disease Specialist) assigned an allergy staff slot and R. Neal Boswell with developing an Immunology Laboratory to manage this population. Robert L. Jacobs retired in 1984 and Bruce G. Martin assumed the Chairmanship.
Left to right: Drs. Terence Sams (Faculty), Edwin McCluskey (1st yr fellow), Donald Q. Mitchell (2nd yr fellow), Max I. Michels (Chair), and Bob Jacobs (Faculty)
There were two USAF NARES abstracts presented: one by Bob Jacobs and the other by Neal Boswell. Their abstracts immediately followed the abstract from the Mason Clinic by Mike Mullarky on the same subject. These presentations were considered revolutionary at that time because all chronic rhinitis problems were felt to be of allergic causation and the A/I problem was that we did not test to the correct allergen. This picture was taken after the presentation when Dr. Jacobs had answered a question concerning foods as the allergic cause for NARES. He had replied that they did not believe that foods caused allergic rhinitis except during a systemic reaction which created an uproar from the pediatricians in the audience. The paper had been submitted as two papers, and after prolonged reviews, the data was accepted but required to be combined into one paper. There was a delay among the authors in combining the papers. That is the reason that Mullarky published his paper a year before Wilford Hall published. The Wilford Hall paper became the dominant publication, not because of the content, but because of the name: NARES. Reference: Jacobs RL, Freedman PM, Boswell RN. Nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia (NARES syndrome). J Allergy Clin ImmunoI 1981;67:253-62
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